This review is an overview of the current status of the advanced practice provider (APP) working in critical care. After describing the history of the profession, the paper focuses on the literature available. Although a lot of literature is available, the papers are often heterogeneous and comparison with other clinicians remains difficult. The paper zooms in on the situation in the Netherlands and describes the training courses for the physician assistant (PA), the equivalent of the APP, together with the legislation in place. Furthermore, the review elaborates on the potential superimposed value of the PA for the ICU. Because of the limited amount of studies performed in the Dutch situation this review finishes with the conclusions of 15-year-experience and the possible issues which could arise when implementing a PA on the ICU.
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