Background: Despite modern advances in intensive care management, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) continues to be high. This study was performed to characterise the predisposing factors impacting the development of AKI, and secondary outcomes among patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Methods: In this single-centre retrospective study, AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network. Patients were divided into two groups: those without AKI (Group I, 544 patients) and those with AKI (Group II, 181 patients). Patients’ admission and outcome data were analysed.
Results: The patients’ mean age was 53±12 years, and 25% of the patients had AKI. The two groups were matched with regard to age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes, and history of hypertension. Group II had a considerably higher additive EuroSCORE and lower ejection fraction than Group I. The lengths of ventilation, ICU, and hospital stay were significantly higher in Group II than I. Group II had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation and mortality rate than Group I. Interestingly, AKI was significantly more notable in Asians than in Arabs. A total of 1.9% of patients required renal replacement therapy. The independent risk factors for AKI in our population were the additive EuroSCORE, time of cardiopulmonary bypass, low postoperative haemoglobin level, postoperative white cell count, and total amount of blood loss. Conclusion: Cardiac surgery-induced AKI is highly prevalent and prognostically fundamental. Management options targeting treating preoperative anaemia, shortening cardiopulmonary bypass time, and reducing red blood cell transfusion may help to prevent this complication.
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