Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) are prophylactic antibiotic regimens used in intensive care units (ICUs) to prevent infections in ICU patients. This guideline, based upon a recently published Dutch Guideline (published at http://www.swab.nl /richtlijnen), summarises relevant literature regarding the effects of SDD and SOD on patient outcome and antibiotic resistance
in Dutch ICUs. In conclusion, both SDD and SOD reduce ICU mortality as compared with a control group, yet no difference in survival was found between SDD and SOD. Both strategies are cost-effective. SDD resulted in less ICU-acquired Gram-negative bacteraemia as compared with SOD and control. So far, no increase in antibiotic resistance has been observed.
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