Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid with multiple biological functions. The supplementation of this amino acid to parenteral nutrition has been widely used for the management of ICU complications. However, inconclusive reports have generated reluctance in the use of this pharmaco-nutrient.
In the last decade, new studies have reported the beneficial effects for the cardiovascular and pulmonary system, besides its classical functions as antioxidant, immunomodulator and substrate for other molecules. From the medical science point of view, considering clinical and in vivo studies, the evidence describes several metabolic pathways in which glutamine plays a beneficial role. These pleiotropic effects support the participation of glutamine as a cardioprotective and antiinflammatory amino acid.
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